It is said that gene cloning is a technique that uses recombinant DNA technology to create an exact copy of a gene. Nuclear Cloning, in contrast, is the process where scientists extract and use human cells as genetic material.
There are five differences and similarities of gene cloning and nuclear cloning:
1) Gene Clones are copies of genes while nuclear clones are copies of nuclei.
2) Gene cloning is a process in which genes are extracted and introduced into other organisms while nuclear cloning is the process of removing a nucleus from one cell, inserting it into another cell, and injecting them with an electric shock to fuse the DNA.
3) Gene cloning is taking out a gene from an organism and putting it in another organism. Nuclear cloning, on the other hand, is taking a nucleus out of one organism and injecting it into another.
4) Nuclear clones are only used as models for medicine and research. Also, nuclear clones cannot be transplanted or grafted onto humans. On the other hand, gene clones can be transplanted since they contain genes from any organism used to create them.
5) Both nuclear cloning and gene cloning are used to study genetics, cell biology, and the structure of chromosomes. (5-10)
Macrocloning is studying the structure of a protist or an eukaryote within a cell membrane by means of techniques like electron microscopy. Such techniques provide insight into fundamental biological principles such as gene regulation and protein interactions.
For example, “Kinetochores”, which are dense packets at the ends of chromosomes within the nucleus, have been observed to pack down in certain conditions while being loosely packed in other conditions. This provides insight not only into how metaphase chromosomes segregate during cell division but also into why some cells are able to replicate more efficiently than others.