Variety of Learning
In this lessons, we are going to determine how these principles were being delineated at the beginning of this chapter, and its simple techniques which can be applied to almost any lesson.
- If everything is certain and known, there is no need to think. Learning demands thinking. Gaps create that demand. There are many types of gap, which can be exploited:
A. INFORMATION GAPSF. OPINION GAPS
What is important? What is not? What is relevant?
Most Teachers will be familiar with this type of activity. There is need to communicate and share the knowledge.
B. MEDIA GAPS
The information is available in one medium and needs to be transferred to another medium, for example: read, make notes, discuss using notes.
C. REASONING GAPS
There are clues and pieces of evidence, but the answer needs to be extrapolated.
D. MEMORY GAPS
The learners have received some information to one stage of the lesson.
E. JIGSAW GAPS
All the parts are there, but they need to be put together to form a complete unit.
G. CERTAINTY GAPS
What is definitely known? What can be presupposed? What can be predicted? What is completely unavailable?
- it is the spice of learning. In order to get the repetition necessary to help learning, there must be variety to keep the mind alert. Variety can be achieved in a number of ways:
Variety of medium: text, tape, pictures
Variety of classroom organization: whole class, pair, individual, group
Variety of learner roles: presenter, evaluator, receiver, thinker
Variety of exercise: activity or task
Variety of skills: reading, listening, writing, speaking, graphic skills
Variety of topic.
Variety of focus: accuracy, fluency, discourse, structure, pronunciation
- It is a matter of using existing knowledge of a pattern or system in order to anticipate what is likely in a novel situation.
It builds learner confidence.
It enables the teacher to discover where the gaps in knowledge are
It activates the learner’s mind
It gives students and ego investment.
- It isn’t just an added extra, an unnecessary frill. It is the simplest of all ways of engaging the learner’s mind. It doesn’t matter how relevant a lesson may appear to be; if it bores the students, it is a bad lesson.
- An integrated methodology
- Using a range of skill greatly increases the range of activities possible in the classroom. This makes it easier to achieve a high degree of recycling and reinforcement, while maintaining the learner’s interest.
- It should be clear where the lesson is going.
- Lesson preparation is normally interpreted as the teacher planning the stages of lesson. But, as well as preparing the teachers to teach, we should also preparing the learners to learn.
- Learners need to be involved both cognitively and emotionally in the lesson. We have set out already some of the ways in which learners can be involved. One of the simplest ways is asking questions. Don’t tell the learners things they already know; use guiding questions to get them to tell you and rest of the class. But, there are two words of warning here:
- Language is dynamic. Lesson should reflect this. Activities should therefore allow for different possible answers, different levels of response. Different does not mean wrong (Stevick, 1982)
- For all that we might try to analyze and systematic teaching, we must still recognize that effective learning depends heavily on intangible factors, such as the relationship between teacher and student.
It is impossible to deal adequately with methodology in a book. It has to be experienced in the classroom for us to know better its results. We have tried in this chapter to show some techniques which can help to make ESP classroom a livelier, more enjoyable and thus more effective environment for both learner and teacher.
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