Category: Translation and Editing of Text
ADVANTAGES OF AN ENGLISH MAJOR A Spenserian Sonnet

Subtitling

In this lesson, we are going to discuss the definition of subtitling and some of its basic principle criteria. What is Subtitling?– is a type of audio visual translation that has its own rules and specification. Thus, it is a translation that has restrictions and certain criteria which directly affect the final result. So, the […]

Continue Reading
Editing in Translation

Editing in Translation

Objective: At the end of the lesson the students were able to Discuss the editing in translation Enumerate the editing in translation Create summary about light and full editing, style short editing and copy editing and proofreading.

Continue Reading
I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: a. Determine properly the different procedures in translation. b. Apply accurately the procedures in translating texts. c. Appreciate precisely the different translation styles and procedures. II. Introduction A basic survey across a given language pair normally reveals unit that are structurally incongruent with one another, which demonstrates that translation cannot be reduced to establishing a straightforward correspondence between individual words. To properly render the meaning of the source text, translators must introduce translation shifts, departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the source language to the target language. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282504599_translation_procedures) Nida’s Translation Procedure In Nida’ book, The Theory and Practice of Translation, he defined translation as “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.” Translating culture-specific concepts (CSCs) in general and allusions in particular seem to be one of the most challenging tasks to be performed by a translator; in other words, allusions are potential problems of the translation process due to the fact that allusions have particular connotations and implications in the source language (SL) and the foreign culture (FC) but not necessarily in the TL and the domestic culture. There are some procedures and strategies for rendering CSCs and allusions respectively. Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken SL texts to equivalent written or spoken TL texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts—in another language and thus making them available to wider readers. Procedures: The translating procedures, as depicted by Nida (1964) are as follow: I. Technical procedures: A. Analysis of the source and target languages; B. A through study of the source language text before making an attempt to translate it; C. Making judgements of the semantic and the syntactic approximations. II. Organizational procedures: a. Constant re-evaluation of the attempt made; b. Contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same text done by other translators; c. Checking the text's communicative effectiveness by asking the target language readers to evaluate its accuracy and effectiveness and studying their reactions. Source: https://translationjournal.net/journal/41culture.htm Nida’s 8 principles: 1. A language is a series of verbal habits that represents aspects of a culture. 2. The meaning of a verbal symbol is defined indirectly by all contrastive symbols. 3. Within any symbolic system the context normally contains more information than any focal term. 4. There are no complete synonyms within a language or between different languages, but such a statement seems evidently incorrect because almost all dictionaries have extensive lists of synonyms. 5. All languages and cultures are continually in the process of change, and such changes occur on all levels of structure. 6. An all levels of American English, from sounds to discourse, important images are occurring, but most speakers are largely unaware of what is happening. 7. One important aspect of languages and culture is the fact that stylistic models have a very important role in communication, and proper adherence to such model is imperative, but highly creative writing is not always controlled by fixed rules. 8. Some universal models of discourse are very important for translators and interpreters. The four most important classes of discourse are: narration, description, argumentation, and conversation. Vinay and Darbelnet's Translation Procedures Borrowing  Borrowing is the idea of taking the word from the source language (SL) and maintaining it in the target language (TL). It is considered the simplest of the procedures and tends to be employed in two situations: either when discussing a new technical process for which no term exists within the TL, or when maintaining a word from the SL for stylistic effect, in which the translator uses the foreign term to add flavor to the target text (TT). English also borrows a lot of words in other languages. For example:  Café and résumé from French  Hamburger and kindergarten from German  Bandana, musk and sugar are from Sanskrit Calque A calque is when an expression from the source text (ST) is transferred literally into the TT. Calques either follow the syntax of the TL while translating each word literally or ignore the syntax of the TL and maintain the syntax of the SL, rendering the calque in an awkward syntactical structure in the TT. Literal Translation  The third translation method is only to be used under certain circumstances according to Vinay and Darbelnet. The idea of translating word for word in a way that does not alter the meaning is considered an acceptable use of literal translation by the two scholars. Literal translation, put simply, expands the scope of a calque but in a much more acceptable way. Transposition  Vinay and Darbelnet referred to transposition as changing word class without changing meaning. This refers to when translators (often without thinking) change the word type, such as from nouns to verbs. Vinay and Darbelnet considered transposition to be either obligatory or optional, and referred to the ST as the base expression and the TT as the transposed expression. Modulation  The fifth of Vinay and Darbelnet's procedures is modulation. Modulation refers to rendering the TT from a different point of view to that of the ST. Vinay and Darbelnet consider this procedure to be necessary when the results of the former procedures would produce an awkward-sounding translation, despite it being grammatically, syntactically, and lexically correct. Modulation is a way for the translator to find a degree of naturalness in their TT without sacrificing any meaning or accuracy originating from the ST. Equivalence  The idea of equivalence can be simultaneously simple and complex in Translation Studies. Vinay and Darbelnet explain equivalence as something almost inherently cultural, using the example of someone expressing pain. In English the term "ouch!" is used, while in French, a literal rendering of the sound would be of no use to the reader. Instead, the equivalent of "ouch!" in French is "aïe!". Both words would immediately indicate to readers that there is some level of pain involved. Adaptation  The most complex of Vinay and Darbelnet's translation procedures is the final one, adaptation. Adaptation is similar to equivalence in the way that the translator seeks to render the SL into the TL whilst ensuring it is just as relevant and meaningful as the original was. Imagine the ST mentioned something that was so undeniably English that translating it into French would have absolutely no meaning, or vice-versa. At that point the translator must use adaptation.

Translation procedures and subtitling

Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: Determine properly the different procedures in translation. Apply accurately the procedures in translating texts. Appreciate precisely the different translation styles and procedures. Introduction

Continue Reading

History of Translation

Is the communication of meaning from one language (the source) to another language (the target). Translation refers to written information, whereas interpretation refers to spoken information. Translation has been used by humans for centuries, beginning after the appearance of written literature. Modern-day translators use sophisticated tools and technologies to accomplish their work, rely heavily on […]

Continue Reading